Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering

Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering

Nguyen, Cam

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

03/2015

888

Dura

Inglês

9780471398202

15 a 20 dias

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. This book thoroughly discusses the theory, analysis, design, and high-frequency/high-speed characteristics and applications of printed-circuit transmission lines used in integrated circuits and systems.
PREFACE xvii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Problems 5 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROMAGNETICS 6 2.1 EM Field Parameters 6 2.2 Maxwell s Equations 7 2.3 Auxiliary Relations 8 2.3.1 Constitutive Relations 8 2.3.2 Current Relations 9 2.4 Sinusoidal Time-Varying Steady State 9 2.5 Boundary Conditions 10 2.5.1 General Boundary Conditions 11 2.5.2 Specific Boundary Conditions 11 2.6 Wave Equations 12 2.7 Power 13 2.8 Loss and Propagation Constant in Medium 14 2.9 Skin Depth 16 2.10 Surface Impedance 17 Problems 19 3 LUMPED ELEMENTS 20 3.1 Fundamentals of Lumped Elements 20 3.1.1 Basic Equations 23 3.2 Quality Factor of Lumped Elements 28 3.3 Modeling of Lumped Elements 30 3.4 Inductors 32 3.4.1 Inductor Configurations 32 3.4.2 Loss in Inductors 36 3.4.3 Equivalent-Circuit Models of Inductors 39 3.4.4 Resonance in Inductors 45 3.4.5 Quality Factor of Inductors 46 3.4.6 High Q Inductor Design Considerations 51 3.5 Lumped-Element Capacitors 60 3.5.1 Capacitor Configurations 60 3.5.2 Equivalent-Circuit Models of Capacitors 63 3.5.3 Resonance 68 3.5.4 Quality Factor 69 3.5.5 High Q Capacitor Design Considerations 71 3.6 Lumped-Element Resistors 72 3.6.1 Resistor Configurations 72 3.6.2 Basic Resistor Equations 72 3.6.3 Equivalent-Circuit Models of Resistors 75 References 75 Problems 76 4 TRANSMISSION LINES 85 4.1 Essentials of Transmission Lines 85 4.2 Transmission-Line Equations 86 4.2.1 General Transmission-Line Equations 86 4.2.2 Sinusoidal Steady-State Transmission-Line Equations 91 4.3 Transmission-Line Parameters 93 4.3.1 General Transmission Lines 93 4.3.2 Lossless Transmission Lines 96 4.3.3 Low Loss Transmission Lines 96 4.4 Per-Unit-Length Parameters R,L,C, and G 97 4.4.1 General Formulation 97 4.4.2 Formulation for Simple Transmission Lines 104 4.5 Dielectric and Conductor Losses in Transmission Lines 107 4.5.1 Dielectric Attenuation Constant 108 4.5.2 Conductor Attenuation Constant 109 4.6 Dispersion and Distortion in Transmission Lines 111 4.6.1 Dispersion 111 4.6.2 Distortion 111 4.6.3 Distortion-Less Transmission Lines 113 4.7 Group Velocity 115 4.8 Impedance, Reflection Coefficients, and Standing-Wave Ratios 117 4.8.1 Impedance 117 4.8.2 Reflection Coefficients 119 4.8.3 Standing-Wave Ratio 120 4.8.4 Perfect Match and Total Reflection 122 4.8.5 Lossless Transmission Lines 123 4.9 Synthetic Transmission Lines 126 4.10 Tem and Quasi-Tem Transmission-Line Parameters 128 4.10.1 Static or Quasi-Static Analysis 129 4.10.2 Dynamic Analysis 130 4.11 Printed-Circuit Transmission Lines 132 4.11.1 Microstrip Line 133 4.11.2 CoplanarWaveguide 135 4.11.3 Coplanar Strips 138 4.11.4 Strip Line 139 4.11.5 Slot Line 141 4.11.6 Field Distributions 142 4.12 Transmission Lines in RFICs 144 4.12.1 Microstrip Line 145 4.12.2 CoplanarWaveguide 146 4.12.3 Coplanar Strips 149 4.12.4 Strip Line 149 4.12.5 Slot Line 150 4.12.6 Transitions and Junctions Between Transmission Lines 150 4.13 Multi-Conductor Transmission Lines 152 4.13.1 Transmission-Line Equations 152 4.13.2 Propagation Modes 156 4.13.3 Characteristic Impedance and Admittance Matrix 157 4.13.4 Mode Characteristic Impedances and Admittances 159 4.13.5 Impedance and Admittance Matrix 161 4.13.6 Lossless Multiconductor Transmission Lines 163 References 173 Problems 174 Appendix 4: Transmission-Line Equations Derived From Maxwell s Equations 182 5 RESONATORS 186 5.1 Fundamentals of Resonators 186 5.1.1 Parallel Resonators 187 5.1.2 Series Resonators 188 5.2 Quality Factor 189 5.2.1 Parallel Resonators 190 5.2.2 Series Resonators 193 5.2.3 Unloaded Quality Factor 195 5.2.4 Loaded Quality Factor 195 5.2.5 Evaluation of and Relation between Unloaded and Loaded Quality Factors 198 5.3 Distributed Resonators 205 5.3.1 Quality-Factor Characteristics 206 5.3.2 Transmission-Line Resonators 207 5.3.3 Waveguide Cavity Resonators 216 5.4 Resonator s Slope Parameters 231 5.5 Transformation of Resonators 231 5.5.1 Impedance and Admittance Inverters 231 5.5.2 Examples of Resonator Transformation 236 References 237 Problems 238 6 IMPEDANCE MATCHING 244 6.1 Basic Impedance Matching 244 6.1.1 Smith Chart 244 6.2 Design of Impedance-Matching Networks 248 6.2.1 Impedance-Matching Network Topologies 249 6.2.2 Impedance Transformation through Series and Shunt Inductor and Capacitor 249 6.2.3 Examples of Impedance-Matching Network Design 252 6.2.4 Transmission-Line Impedance-Matching Networks 255 6.3 Kuroda Identities 262 References 266 Problems 266 7 SCATTERING PARAMETERS 271 7.1 Multiport Networks 271 7.2 Impedance Matrix 273 7.3 Admittance Matrix 274 7.4 Impedance and Admittance Matrix in RF Circuit Analysis 274 7.4.1 T-Network Representation of Two-Port RF Circuits 275 7.4.2 -Network Representation of Two-Port RF Circuits 278 7.5 Scattering Matrix 279 7.5.1 Fundamentals of Scattering Matrix 279 7.5.2 Examples for Scattering Parameters 287 7.5.3 Effect of Reference-Plane Change on Scattering Matrix 288 7.5.4 Return Loss, Insertion Loss, and Gain 290 7.6 Chain Matrix 293 7.7 Scattering Transmission Matrix 294 7.8 Conversion Between Two-Port Parameters 295 7.8.1 Conversion from [Z] to [ABCD] 295 References 298 Problems 298 8 RF PASSIVE COMPONENTS 304 8.1 Characteristics of Multiport RF Passive Components 304 8.1.1 Characteristics of Three-Port Components 304 8.1.2 Characteristics of Four-Port Components 309 8.2 Directional Couplers 311 8.2.1 Fundamentals of Directional Couplers 311 8.2.2 Parallel-Coupled Directional Couplers 313 8.3 Hybrids 326 8.3.1 Hybrid T 326 8.3.2 Ring Hybrid 328 8.3.3 Branch-Line Coupler 335 8.4 Power Dividers 339 8.4.1 Even-Mode Analysis 340 8.4.2 Odd-Mode Analysis 342 8.4.3 Superimposition of Even and Odd Modes 343 8.5 Filters 345 8.5.1 Low Pass Filter 345 8.5.2 High Pass Filter Design 357 8.5.3 Band-Pass Filter Design 359 8.5.4 Band-Stop Filter Design 361 8.5.5 Filter Design Using Impedance and Admittance Inverters 364 References 371 Problems 372 9 FUNDAMENTALS OF CMOS TRANSISTORS FOR RFIC DESIGN 379 9.1 MOSFET Basics 379 9.1.1 MOSFET Structure 379 9.1.2 MOSFET Operation 382 9.2 MOSFET Models 386 9.2.1 Physics-Based Models 387 9.2.2 Empirical Models 387 9.2.3 SPICE Models 402 9.2.4 Passive MOSFET Models 404 9.3 Important MOSFET Frquencies 407 9.3.1 fT 408 9.3.2 fmax 408 9.4 Other Important MOSFET Parameters 409 9.5 Varactor Diodes 409 9.5.1 Varactor Structure and Operation 409 9.5.2 Varactor Model and Characteristics 410 References 412 Problems 412 10 STABILITY 418 10.1 Fundamentals of Stability 418 10.2 Determination of Stable and Unstable Regions 421 10.3 Stability Consideration for N-Port Circuits 427 References 427 Problems 428 11 AMPLIFIERS 430 11.1 Fundamentals of Amplifier Design 430 11.1.1 Power Gain 430 11.1.2 Gain Design 433 11.2 Low Noise Amplifiers 443 11.2.1 Noise Figure Fundamentals 443 11.2.2 MOSFET Noise Parameters 446 11.2.3 Noise Figure of Multistage Amplifiers 447 11.2.4 Noise-Figure Design 448 11.2.5 Design for Gain and Noise Figure 450 11.3 Design Examples 451 11.3.1 Unilateral Amplifier Design 451 11.3.2 Bilateral Amplifier Design 454 11.4 Power Amplifiers 455 11.4.1 Power-Amplifier Parameters 455 11.4.2 Power-Amplifier Types 458 11.5 Balanced Amplifiers 470 11.5.1 Differential Amplifiers 470 11.5.2 Ninety-Degree Balanced Amplifiers 485 11.5.3 Push Pull Amplifiers 487 11.6 Broadband Amplifiers 489 11.6.1 Compensated Matching Networks 489 11.6.2 Distributed Amplifiers 490 11.6.3 Feedback Amplifiers 523 11.6.4 Cascoded Common-Source Amplifiers 540 11.7 Current Mirrors 548 11.7.1 Basic Current Mirror 550 11.7.2 Cascode Current Mirror 550 References 552 Problems 553 A11.1 Fundamentals of Signal Flow Graph 563 A11.2 Signal Flow Graph of Two-Port Networks 563 A11.2.1 Transistor s Signal Flow Graph 563 A11.2.2 Input Matching Network s Signal Flow Graph 564 A11.2.3 Output Matching Network s Signal Flow Graph 565 A11.2.4 Signal Flow Graph of the Composite Two-Port Network 566 A11.3 Derivation of Network s Parameters Using Signal Flow Graphs 566 A11.3.1 Examples of Derivation 567 A11.3.2 Derivation of Reflection Coefficients and Power Gain 568 References 571 12 OSCILLATORS 572 12.1 Principle of Oscillation 572 12.1.1 Oscillation Conditions 573 12.1.2 Oscillation Determination 574 12.2 Fundamentals of Oscillator Design 575 12.2.1 Basic Oscillators 576 12.2.2 Feedback Oscillators 579 12.3 Phase Noise 587 12.3.1 Fundamentals of Phase Noise 588 12.3.2 Phase Noise Modeling 593 12.3.3 Low Phase-Noise Design Consideration 599 12.3.4 Effects of Phase Noise on Systems 599 12.3.5 Analysis Example of Effects of Phase Noise 601 12.4 Oscillator Circuits 602 12.4.1 Cross-Coupled Oscillators 602 12.4.2 Distributed Oscillators 612 12.4.3 Push-Push Oscillators 617 References 626 Problems 627 13 MIXERS 633 13.1 Fundamentals of Mixers 633 13.1.1 Mixing Principle 633 13.1.2 Mixer Parameters 636 13.2 Mixer Types 641 13.2.1 Single-Ended Mixer 642 13.2.2 Single-Balanced Mixer 642 13.2.3 Double-Balanced Mixer 646 13.2.4 Doubly Double-Balanced Mixer 649 13.3 Other Mixers 650 13.3.1 Passive Mixer 650 13.3.2 Image-Reject Mixer 651 13.3.3 Quadrature Mixer 652 13.3.4 Distributed Mixer 652 13.4 Mixer Analysis and Design 656 13.4.1 Switching Mixer Fundamental 656 13.4.2 Single-Ended Mixer 658 13.4.3 Single-Balanced Mixer 661 13.4.4 Double-Balanced Mixer 663 13.4.5 Source Degeneration in Mixer Design 665 13.5 Sampling Mixer 667 13.5.1 Fundamentals of Sampling 668 13.5.2 Sampling Theory 669 13.5.3 Sampling Process 670 13.5.4 Sample and Hold 673 13.5.5 Sampling Switch 678 13.5.6 Integrated Sampling Mixer 678 References 689 Problems 690 14 SWITCHES 694 14.1 Fundamentals of Switches 694 14.1.1 Switch Operation 694 14.1.2 Important Parameters 695 14.2 Analysis of Switching MOSFET 697 14.2.1 Analysis of Shunt Transistor 697 14.2.2 Analysis of Series Transistor 698 14.2.3 Analysis of Combined Series and Shunt Transistors 699 14.2.4 Selection of MOSFET 699 14.2.5 Design Consideration for Improved Insertion Loss and Isolation 701 14.3 SPST Switches 702 14.3.1 SPST Switch Employing Two Parallel MOSFETs 702 14.3.2 SPST Switch Employing Two Series MOSFETs 703 14.3.3 SPST Switch Employing Two Series and Two Shunt MOSFETs 703 14.3.4 SPST Switch Using Impedance or Admittance Inverters 703 14.4 SPDT Switches 712 14.4.1 SPDT Switch Topologies 712 14.4.2 SPDT Switch Analysis 713 14.5 Ultra-Wideband Switches 714 14.5.1 Ultra-Wideband SPST Switch 715 14.5.2 Ultra-Wideband T/R Switch 721 14.6 Ultra-High-Isolation Switches 727 14.6.1 Ultra-High-Isolation Switch Architecture and Analysis 727 14.6.2 Ultra-High-Isolation SPST Switch Design 733 14.7 Filter Switches 737 References 739 Problems 739 15 RFIC SIMULATION, LAYOUT, AND TEST 747 15.1 RFIC Simulation 748 15.1.1 DC Simulation 749 15.1.2 Small-Signal AC Simulation 749 15.1.3 Transient Simulation 749 15.1.4 Periodic Steady State Simulation 749 15.1.5 Harmonic-Balance Simulation 750 15.1.6 Periodic Distortion Analysis 751 15.1.7 Envelope Simulation 751 15.1.8 Periodic Small Signal Analysis 751 15.1.9 EM Simulation 751 15.1.10 Statistical and Mismatch Simulation 754 15.2 RFIC Layout 754 15.2.1 General Layout Issues 754 15.2.2 Passive and Active Component Layout 755 15.3 RFIC Measurement 758 15.3.1 On-Wafer Measurement 759 15.3.2 Off-Chip Measurement 782 References 784 Problems 784 16 SYSTEMS 788 16.1 Fundamentals of Systems 788 16.1.1 Friis Transmission Equation 788 16.1.2 System Equation 790 16.1.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio of System 791 16.1.4 Receiver Sensitivity 793 16.1.5 System Performance Factor 794 16.1.6 Power 796 16.1.7 Angle and Range Resolution 797 16.1.8 Range Accuracy 800 16.2 System Type 801 16.2.1 Pulse System 801 16.2.2 FMCW System 803 16.2.3 Receiver Architectures 808 References 826 Problems 826 APPENDIX: RFIC DESIGN EXAMPLE: MIXER 830 A1.1 Circuit Design Specifications and General Design Information 830 A1.2 Mixer Design 830 A1.2.1 Single-Ended to Differential Input Active Balun 832 A1.2.2 Double-Balanced Gilbert Cell 832 A1.2.3 Differential to Single-Ended Output Active Balun 834 A1.2.4 Band-Pass Filter 834 A1.3 Mixer Optimization and Layout 835 A1.4 Simulation Results 836 A1.4.1 Stability 836 A1.4.2 Return Loss 836 A1.4.3 Conversion Gain 836 A1.4.4 Noise Figure 837 A1.4.5 Other Mixer Performance 837 A1.5 Measured Results 838 References 840 INDEX 841
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